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Data Set #040

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About the Data

About stream temperatures and canopy:

    Stream temperature is an important ecological variable for a variety of riverine organisms. Some salmon and trout, for example, are very sensitive to water temperature at certain life stages, particularly as fertilized eggs and fry. In the Pacific Northwest, salmonids require rather cold water during the developmental stage to maximize survivability. Water temperature affects the amount of dissolved oxygen and the microorganisms upon which the fry and fingerlings feed, among others.

    Stream temperature is controlled by a large number of factors, including (but not limited to) the temperature of rainfall, the amount of runoff and/or groundwater originating from melting snow and ice, the elevation of the drainage basin above sea level, the time of year, the water depth, how fast the water is moving and the amount of direct sunlight on the stream. This latter variable is dictated by the density and completeness of the canopy over the stream. Recognizing the role of direct sunlight in warming streams, Washington State's new logging regulations require more extensive streamside buffers of vegetation.

    The Center for Urban Water Resources Management (CUWRM) and the Center for Streamside Studies (CSS) at the University of Washington in Seattle collected a large amount of data about lowland and foothills streams in 1998 and 1999, including discharge, water temperature, vegetation, etc. The UW collects this data in just a few days, in order to provide a "snapshot" of the streams without the effects of season, weather, etc. We have extracted a subset of the 1999 data.

    The table and histograms show stream temperatures under a closed canopy of vegetation and in open sky with no shielding vegetation. The student should recognize immediately that widely different size of the two samples (n = 178 and n = 67) might introduce problems in comparing the distribution of values. As can be seen from the histograms and the student's computations, the means for these two groups are different, with colder water in the shaded streams. However, the standard deviations of both distributions are fairly large compared to this difference in mean temperatures. Is this difference in mean temperatures significant?

    The student should be asked if these data are sufficient to test the idea that canopy plays a significant role in keeping the stream cool. For example, what was the amount of shading upstream from the measurement?

Reference: http://depts.washington.edu/cuwrm/research.htm

     
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 Source: Center for Urban Water Resources Management (CUWRM) & the Center for Streamside Studies (CSS) at the University of Washington in Seattle.

Stream

H20
Temp (C)

Canopy

   

Thornton

22.8

Closed, full shade

bin

freq.

Longfellow

15.6

Closed, full shade

9-10

1

Longfellow

16.1

Closed, full shade

10-11

1

Des Moines

17.5

Closed, full shade

11-12

1

Garrison

15.0

Closed, full shade

12-13

10

Garrison

14.8

Closed, full shade

13-14

16

Soos

20.5

Closed, full shade

14-15

36

Soos trib 0095

16.0

Closed, full shade

15-16

29

Soos

21.0

Closed, full shade

16-17

26

Coal

15.5

Closed, full shade

17-18

23

Sunset

15.5

Closed, full shade

18-19

11

Richards

14.9

Closed, full shade

19-20

5

Richards

15.1

Closed, full shade

20-21

6

Richards

16.2

Closed, full shade

21-22

5

Sunset

11.9

Closed, full shade

22-23

2

Valley

17.0

Closed, full shade

23-24

1

Bear

18.0

Closed, full shade

24-25

3

Stave

15.0

Closed, full shade

25-26

1

Forbes

17.0

Closed, full shade

26-27

0

Juanita

17.0

Closed, full shade

27-28

1

Juanita

17.5

Closed, full shade

   

Newaukum

15.0

Closed, full shade

   

Newaukum

13.0

Closed, full shade

   

Newaukum

15.0

Closed, full shade

   

Morey

24.0

Closed, full shade

   

Morey

21.0

Closed, full shade

   

Spanaway

24.0

Closed, full shade

   

Morey

24.5

Closed, full shade

   

Clover

20.0

Closed, full shade

   

Clover

17.0

Closed, full shade

   

Clover

20.0

Closed, full shade

   

Swan

14.0

Closed, full shade

   

Swan

14.5

Closed, full shade

   

Swan

15.0

Closed, full shade

   

Flett

15.0

Closed, full shade

   

Flett

15.8

Closed, full shade

   

Chambers

19.3

Closed, full shade

   

Chambers

15.7

Closed, full shade

   

Chambers

16.8

Closed, full shade

   

Leach

13.0

Closed, full shade

   

Puget

12.5

Closed, full shade

   

Puget

12.5

Closed, full shade

   

Puget

12.0

Closed, full shade

   

Puget

12.0

Closed, full shade

   

Wollochet

16.5

Closed, full shade

   

Crescent

14.4

Closed, full shade

   

Donkey

15.6

Closed, full shade

   

Crescent

14.4

Closed, full shade

   

Crescent

17.2

Closed, full shade

   

Deer

17.0

Closed, full shade

   

Deer

17.0

Closed, full shade

   

Deer

27.0

Closed, full shade

   

Wildwood

14.0

Closed, full shade

   

Wildwood

17.0

Closed, full shade

   

Deer

17.0

Closed, full shade

   

Wildwood

15.0

Closed, full shade

   

Deer

17.0

Closed, full shade

   

Clarks

9.5

Closed, full shade

   

W. Hylebos

15.0

Closed, full shade

   

W. Hylebos

12.0

Closed, full shade

   

Hylebos

14.0

Closed, full shade

   

Little Soos

19.5

Closed, full shade

   

Jenkins

17.0

Closed, full shade

   

Jenkins trib 0088

13.5

Closed, full shade

   

Covington

23.0

Closed, full shade

   

Covington

16.0

Closed, full shade

   

Covington

16.0

Closed full shade

   

Covington trib 0084

21.5

Closed, full shade

   

Murray

15.0

Closed, full shade

   

Murray

14.8

Closed, full shade

   

Murray

13.0

Closed, full shade

   

Murray

16.0

Closed, full shade

   

Quilceda

16.0

Closed, full shade

   

Quilceda

15.0

Closed, full shade

   

Thomas

14.0

Closed, full shade

   

Pigeon #1

15.0

Closed, full shade

   

Pigeon #2

13.6

Closed, full shade

   

Howarth

16.1

Closed, full shade

   

Inglewood

12.7

Closed, full shade

   

North

16.5

Closed, full shade

   

North

18.5

Closed, full shade

   

North

17.0

Closed, full shade

   

North

18.0

Closed, full shade

   

North

17.0

Closed, full shade

   

North

16.5

Closed, full shade

   

Silver

18.3

Closed, full shade

   

Tambark

18.9

Closed, full shade

   

Silver

18.9

Closed, full shade

   

Silver

22.2

Closed, full shade

   

Little Bear

13.0

Closed, full shade

   

Little Bear

14.5

Closed, full shade

   

LIttle Bear

14.0

Closed, full shade

   

Scriber

21.0

Closed, full shade

   

Lyon

17.0

Closed, full shade

   

McAleer

16.5

Closed, full shade

   

Dubuque

18.0

Closed, full shade

   

Woods

13.5

Closed, full shade

   

Woods trib

14.0

Closed, full shade

   

Bear trib 0134A

17.5

Closed, full shade

   

Vaughn

16.9

Closed, full shade

   

Rocky

20.0

Closed, full shade

   

Rocky

14.5

Closed, full shade

   

Chico

25.0

Closed, full shade

   

Beaver

13.5

Closed, full shade

   

Beaver

15.0

Closed, full shade

   

Salmonberry

14.0

Closed, full shade

   

Salmonberry

19.5

Closed, full shade

   

Salmonberry

14.5

Closed, full shade

   

Salmonberry

16.5

Closed, full shade

   

Beaver

13.5

Closed, full shade

   

Gorst

12.0

Closed, full shade

   

Gorst

12.0

Closed, full shade

   

Gorst

14.0

Closed, full shade

   

Gorst

12.5

Closed, full shade

   

Chico

15.0

Closed, full shade

   

Chico

16.0

Closed, full shade

   

Chico

18.0

Closed, full shade

   

Purdy

14.9

Closed, full shade

   

Olalla

13.0

Closed, full shade

   

Olalla

14.0

Closed, full shade

   

Olalla

14.0

Closed, full shade

   

Olalla

14.0

Closed, full shade

   

Olalla

14.0

Closed, full shade

   

Barker

13.0

Closed, full shade

   

Clear

14.0

Closed, full shade

   

Clear

14.0

Closed, full shade

   

Clear

14.0

Closed, full shade

   

Clear

16.0

Closed, full shade

   

Clear

13.3

Closed, full shade

   

Clear

14.5

Closed, full shade

   

Clear

15.0

Closed, full shade

   

Clear

17.5

Closed, full shade

   

Clear

14.0

Closed, full shade

   

Fisher

15.0

Closed, full shade

   

Fisher

16.0

Closed, full shade

   

Judd

14.5

Closed, full shade

   

Judd

14.5

Closed, full shade

   

Judd

15.0

Closed, full shade

   

Judd

14.5

Closed, full shade

   

Shingle Mill

12.0

Closed, full shade

   

Morgan

14.0

Closed, full shade

   

Kapowsin trib

13.0

Closed, full shade

   

Kapowsin

20.0

Closed, full shade

   

Kapowsin

21.0

Closed, full shade

   

Kapowsin

20.0

Closed, full shade

   

Fennel

14.4

Closed, full shade

   

Fennel trib

18.9

Closed, full shade

   

Little Bear

13.0

Closed, full shade

   

Big Anderson

10.5

Closed, full shade

   

Big Beef

14.0

Closed, full shade

   

Schmitz

14.2

Closed, full shade

   

Schmitz

14.2

Closed, full shade

   

Taylor

16.7

Closed, full shade

   

Taylor

16.1

Closed, full shade

   

Taylor

16.1

Closed, full shade

   

Taylor

16.1

Closed, full shade

   

Mill

15.5

Closed, full shade

   

Rock

13.0

Closed, full shade

   

Rock

13.0

Closed, full shade

   

E. Issaquah

15.0

Closed, full shade

   

Holder

17.0

Closed, full shade

   

Evans

16.0

Closed, full shade

   

Bear trib 0115

17.0

Closed, stream in full shade

   

Bear trib 0115

16.5

Closed, stream in full shade

   

Bear

18.0

Closed, stream in full shade

   

Little Soos

19.0

Closed, full shade

   

Jenkins trib 0089

15.0

Closed, full shade

   

Covington

17.0

Closed, full shade

   

Rock

18.5

Closed, full shade

   

Covington

14.0

Closed, full shade

   

Laughing Jacobs

16.0

Closed, full shade

   

Cherry

17.8

Closed, full shade

   

N. Fork Cherry

19.4

Closed, full shade

   

Cherry

17.4

Closed, full shade

   

Griffin

16.0

Closed, full shade

   

Canyon

15.0

Closed, full shade

   

Patterson

15.0

Closed, full shade

   

Patterson trib 0383

15.0

Closed, full shade

   
         

mean temp

16.02

     

std dev

2.83

     

Stream

H20 Temp (C)

Canopy

   

Thornton

17.8

Open, full sun

bin

freq.

Thornton

23.3

Open, full sun

9-10

0

Longfellow

14.4

Open, full sun

10-11

0

Longfellow

14.7

Open, full sun

11-12

3

Miller

18.0

Open, full sun

12-13

0

Miller

18.0

Open, full sun

13-14

7

Des Moines

18.0

Open, full sun

14-15

6

Mc Donald

18.0

Open, full sun

15-16

9

Mc Donald

18.5

Open, full sun

16-17

6

Springbrook

27.5

Open, full sun

17-18

7

Coal

23.0

Open, full sun

18-19

10

Coal

23.0

Open, full sun

19-20

2

South Prairie

17.5

Open, full sun

20-21

4

Newaukum

14.0

Open, full sun

21-22

2

Newaukum

13.0

Open, full sun

22-23

3

Spanaway

24.0

Open, full sun

23-24

4

Clover

26.5

Open, full sun

24-25

2

Clover

17.0

Open, full sun

25-26

0

Chambers

15.0

Open, full sun

26-27

1

Chambers

15.9

Open, full sun

27-28

1

Puget

13.0

Open, full sun

   

Artondale

16.0

Open, full sun

   

Artondale

14.4

Open, full sun

   

Artondale

15.6

Open, full sun

   

McCormick

14.4

Open, full sun

   

Deer

21.0

Open, full sun

   

Deer

21.5

Open, full sun

   

Clarks

13.0

Open, full sun

   

Clarks

13.0

Open, full sun

   

Hylebos

15.0

Open, full sun

   

West Hylebos

16.0

Open, full sun

   

W. Hylebos

17.0

Open, full sun

   

Hylebos

17.0

Open, full sun

   

Little Soos

20.0

Open, full sun

   

Newaukum

16.5

Open, full sun

   

Murray

14.0

Open, full sun

   

Allen

15.0

Open, full sun

   

North trib

22.0

Open, full sun

   

Silver

20.0

Open, full sun

   

Little Bear

22.5

Open, full sun

   

LIttle Bear

23.0

Open, full sun

   

Little Bear

16.0

Open, full sun

   

LIttle Bear

16.0

Open, full sun

   

Swamp

19.0

Open, full sun

   

Swamp

18.5

Open, full sun

   

Lyon

17.0

Open, full sun

   

Lyon

18.0

Open, full sun

   

Sister of Friar

15.0

Open, stream in
full sun

   

Lake Roesiger

24.5

Open, full sun

   

Vaughn

15.6

Open, full sun

   

Rocky

15.0

Open, full sun

   

E Rocky (Muck)

18.0

Open, full sun

   

Square

11.7

Open, full sun

   

Kapowsin trib

13.0

Open, full sun

   

Little Bear

13.0

Open, full sun

   

Rock

11.5

Open, full sun

   

Prairie

20.0

Open, full sun

   

Prairie

20.8

Open, full sun

   

Bear

18.0

full sun

   

Bear

19.0

Open, full sun

   

Soos

17.8

Open, full sun

   

Lakota 0387

13.0

Open, full sun

   

Covington

16.5

Open, full sun

   

Pine Lake

15.5

Open, full sun

   

Griffin trib

11.0

Open, full sun

   

Harris

18.5

Open, stream in
full sun

   

Harris

22.0

Open, full sun

   
         

mean temp

17.48

     

st dev

3.70

     
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