Particles 助詞(じょし)

A particle is usually one hiragana, although sometimes it can be two. Particles usually appear right after a noun or at the end of a sentence. Their purpose is to assign a grammatical function to the preceding noun.
Some particles are similar to English prepositions.
(Nakama 1, Makino/Hatasa page 36)

Unlike English prepositions, some are post positions.

は(wa) Topic marker

/page 35
Roughly speaking, the topic of a sentence is what the sentence is about
relationship between nouns
page 41 possession,
Connects two nouns
page 47 It is same as "and" but
not using for connecting two sentences.
also, too
わたしはがくせいです。(I am a student.)
わたしがくせいです。( I am also a student.)
page47 It replaces "wa "or "ga".
A question marker when it places at the end of the sentence.
なんです。(What is it?)
  It is same as "?".
Location followed by verbs,あります、います。

ねこがいます。(There is a cat under the chair.)
page 73 corresponds  to English "in", "at"
followed by verbs,いきます、きます、かえります、はいります。
うちかえります。(I go home.)
page 142 corresponds to English "to".
point of time
6じおきます。( I get up at

(On Sunday I get up at 11:00)
page 139 corresponds to "at" , "on" or "in".
"to whom"
ともだちあいます。(I meet my friend.)
ははでんわをかけます。(I call my mother.)
page 167  
Location where action/event takes place.
1.クラスクイズがあります。(We have a quiz in the class.)

2.このへやねます。(I sleep in this sleep.)
page142 corresponds to "in" or "at".
Subject marker
1.Grammatical subject
ほんあります。(There is a book./The book exists.)

2. When the question word is the subject.
だれせんせいですか。(Who is the teacher?)
page 118  
Direct object marker.
Transitive verbs: such as
たべます、のみます、よみます、みます、かきますhave direct object and を。

ごはんたべます。( I eat a meal.)
みずのみます。( I drink water.)
page 142  
バスいきます。(I go by bus.)

はしたべます。(I eat by chopsticks.)
page 167 corresponds to "by"
starting points and ending points
11じから7じまでねます。( I sleep from 11:00 until 7:00.)
うちからがっこうまであるきます。( I walk from home to school.)
page 167 corresponds "from  to"
together with
ともだちはなします。( I talk with my friend.)
page 168 corresponds "with"