Nutrition for Foodservice
Age: 4-6 0.9/1.1 mg
7-10 1.2 mg
Males : 15- 18 2.0 mg
19-24 2.0 mg
25-50 2.0 mg
50+ 2.0 mg
Females: 15-18 2.0/ 1.5 mg
19-24 2.0/ 1.6 mg
25-50 2.0/ 1.6 mg
50+ 2.0/ 1.6 mg
RDA (for adults)
200 micrograms men
180 micrograms women (non-pregnant or lactating)
Roles in the body
Used in cell division, especially in red blood cells and the immune system. Folate forms tetrahydrofolate, a coenzyme that transfers one carbon atom to forming DNA and RNA (when replicating body cells) from animo acid break down.
Folate also helps the body recycle methionine, an essential animo acid used to form choline (used in making neurotransmitters which help nerve cells communicate) and epinephrine (a hormone that helps the body deal with stress), from homocysteine.
Fatigue, sore tongue, mental disturbances, anemia, digestive disturbances, growth problems. Neural Tube defects (spina bifida), toxemia of pregnancy, some cancers, cervical dysplasia. Risk of heart disease and attack increase when deficient in folic acid.
Excess or Toxicity Symptoms
Doses around 10 to 20 grams per day may induce convulsions in epileptics. Excess folate may hide a vitamin B12 deficiency.
Food Sources (Separate natural and fortified)
Dark green leafy vegetables, legumes, broccoli, citrus fruits, nuts, liver, salmon, whole grains.
In 1998, FDA required enriched grain to include 140 micrograms of folic acid for every 100 grams grain.
Other facts of interest
Member of B COMPLEX family.
Destroyed with high heat and prolonged cooking.
Medically administered with vitamin B12. (because it masks B12 deficiency)
Ronzio, Robert. “Folic acid (folacin, folate).” The Encyclopedia of Nutrition and Good Health, 2nd ed. Facts on File, Inc.: New York. 2003. Article references the following: Morrison, H. J., D. Schaubel, M. Desmeules, and D. T. Wigler. “Serum Folate and Risk of Fatal Coronary Heart Disease,” Journal of the American Medical Association, 275 (June 26, 1996): 1,893-1,896.
Biotin, formerly known as Vitamin B8, has a US RDA of 30 mcgs per day. Foods that are particularly rich in biotin are egg yolk (25 mcgs per one), yeast (14 mcgs per one packet), and liver (27 mcgs per 3 ounces). Biotin is also found in cheese, salmon, avocado, raspberries, and cauliflower.
Biotin prevents premature graying of the hair. Also, if there is enough healthy flora in the intestines, this nutrient can be made by the body.
Biotin deficiency is rare – it has been observed in people who have been under prolonged intravenous feeding (where apparently the IV solution wasn’t supplemented with biotin), and in people who have eaten raw eggs for a prolonged period (there is a protein in egg white that hinders absorption of biotin. Note: you must eat 24 raw egg whites every day for 30 consecutive days to induce a deficiency this way. Symptoms of biotin deficiency are: rash around face and genitals; hair loss; unusual facial fat distribution; depression; hallucinations; and tingling of the extremities. Also, I read that the fleshy part of the tongue may waste away due to biotin deficiency. (!?)
Biotin is not known to be toxic.
Recommended daily Allowance
The Food and Nutrition Board set the “adequate intake” level of choline at 3.5 grams a day in 1998. This was the level deemed by them necessary to prevent liver damage.
Another source, reports 550 mg a day for men and 425 mg for women as a sufficient amount.
Roles in Body
As a dietary supplement, choline can be taken in the form of lecithin, which is a B vitamin. When lecithin breaks down into choline by our bodies its function is to help transport fats and nutrients in and out of our cells membranes. Choline and lecithin are necessary chemicals for human reproduction in the development of fetuses and in infants. Choline is vital in keeping out nervous system healthy.
Choline works with betaine, an alkaloid used by the kidneys to maintain a balance of water in the body. In working with the kidney, choline can also prevent and regulate gallstones. Choline is a necessary nutrient for acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter (chemical that transmits an impulse from one cell or organ to another, such as serotonin or dopamine) that’s involved in muscle control memory and learning.
A deficiency in choline is rare but when it occurs, it is shown that it can lead to liver disease, kidney problems, raise cholesterol levels and create high blood pressure. Because one of the functions of choline is working with the liver, without it, a buildup is created and the liver becomes unable to digest fats.
A study on rats showed that a choline deficiency made them sensitive to carcinogenic chemicals which in turn made cases created cases of liver cancer in rats.
Another study on rats showed that when choline was given to baby rats in their first month and pregnant rats, it improved their memory later in life. This leads researchers to think choline could be used in the prevention of memory loss or dementia for humans, as well, but this has not been tested yet.
Excess / Toxicity Symptoms
High levels of choline can result in the body giving off a fishy odor. Excess of choline can cause nausea; depression and can trigger already existing epilepsy. Hypotension, sweating, salivation and diarrhea are also associated with choline in excess.
The Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) set the following standards:
Natural Vs. Fortified
Choline is typically found in egg yolks, beef, wheat germ, oats, nuts liver, cauliflower, soybeans, spinach and lettuce.
However, it is added in food processing which ups our consumption of choline by about 115 mg per day. The average intake of choline by adults is 730 -1,040 mg a day.
In my research I found this chart listing foods we eat, their serving size and the amount of choline in milligrams found in them:
Other interesting Facts, I found were: strict vegetarians who do not drink milk or eat eggs risk being deficient in choline. On one site, I saw a recommended cure for heartburn, which was taking 500mg of choline 3 times a day. And perhaps, since the test on rats was done about choline being an important nutrient early in life, choline must be in all FDA approved infant formulas.
Retinol is the dietary form of vitamin A and is a fat soluble antioxidant that is important In vision and bone growth. The vitamin is usually ingested from animal sources such as milk and eggs. The recommended daily allowance is 900 g for and adult male and 700g for an adult female. Some of the deficiency symptoms are night blindness, pale or dry skin, or keratomalacia.
Some of the excess symptoms are liver toxicity, dry skin, hair loss, osteoporosis, and teratological disease. Some other sources of retinol are from leafy greans and dark veggies, and liver if you like it. (actually whether you like it or not it is a source. J If you don’t eat it, it doesn’t provide vitamin A)
A. Names of this Nutrient: Alpha-tocopherol
B. RDA: 15mg
C. Roles in the Body: Vitamin E is an antioxidant that
protects Vitamin A & essential
fatty acids in the body cells.
also prevents the breakdown of
D. Deficiency Symptoms: Ataxia (poor muscle
coordination with shaky
movements), lack of
reflexs, balance problems, &
visual impairment. The people
who really need to worry are
people who have Crohn's Disease
or Cystic Fibrosis. Physical
symptoms include dry skin,
easy bruising, & decreased
blood clotting time.
E. Toxicity Symptoms: This vitamin is an anticoagulant
and it may increase the risk of
bleeding problems. It also
decreases storage of Vitamin A
in the liver. Physical Symptoms
include muscle weakness, fatigue,
double vision, nausea, & diarrhea
F. Food Sources: Vegatable oils, nuts, & leafy greens
are a great source for Vitamin E.
Foods like wheat germ oil, almonds,
sunflower seeds, & hazelnuts are some
of the best sources.
The recommended dietary allowance for vitamin K at age:
0-6 months 5 micrograms
6-12 months 10 micrograms
1-3 years 15 micrograms
4-6 years 20 micrograms
7-10 years 30 micrograms
11-14 years 45 micrograms
15-18 years 55 micrograms
19-24 years 60 micrograms
25 years and older or women 65 micrograms
that are pregnant or lactating
15-18 years 65 micrograms
19-24 years 70 micrograms
25 years or older 80 micrograms
Roles in the body
Vitamin K is needed to coagulate blood and help keep proper bone density. It is also involved in bone formation and repair. Vitamin K also assists in converting glucose to glycogen in the liver. It might be possible that Vitamin K can slow down bone loss and decrease the severity of Osteoporosis.
Vitamin K deficiencies are very rare due to the fact that vitamin K is produced in intestinal bacteria and is stored in the liver and bones. Antibiotics destroy both harmful digestive tract bacteria and intestinal bacteria which is how Vitamin K is made in the body. The best way to restore the intestinal bacteria after taking antibiotics is by taking supplements containing acidophilus. Salicylates also block vitamin K in the body. Salicylates are found in fruits, nuts, spices, mints and aspirin (which why aspirin will thin your blood).
Although toxic levels or Vitamin K are hard to reach, it is possible and can cause flushing, sweating, jaundice and amenia. In infants it is more severe. In the first 3-4 months if infants do not receive enough vitamin K they may experience cerebral hemorrhages.
Vitamin K is found in leafy green, broccoli, cheese, liver, asparagus, green tea, coffee, bacon, olive oils, kiwi, cabbage, and soy products are all excellent sources of vitamin K.
Research obtained from:
Vitamin D or Calciferol, a potent steroid hormone.
RDA is 400 IU (International Units) for men and 400 IU for women.
Vitamin D is necessary in the body to form bone, nerve and muscle movement, absorption of calcium and phosphorus in the body. It is a fat-soluble vitamin some refer to it as a hormone. It helps the nervous and heart systems, normal thyroid function and blood clotting.
The three main deficiencies are rickets, weak deformed bones in children, softening of the bones known as osteomalacia (only found in older people) and osteoporosis – a condition due to loss of calcium in olderpeople. Other vitamin D deficiency symptoms include, burning sensation in the mouth and throat, diarrhea, insomnia and visual problems.
Vitamin D toxicity is extremely rare. What has been documented includes: mental retardation in children, abnormal bone growth, nausea, diarrhea, irritability and weight loss and calcium deposits in kidneys, liver and heart.
Food and other natural sources include fatty fish like salmon, tuna and sardines. Liver, eggs, butter, dark leafy vegetables and cows milk. Although milk only contains 100 IU per glass. Vitamin D is absorbed better when vitamin A is also involved. The number one source of vitamin D is sunlight. The body manufactures this nutrient from sunshine on your skin using cholesterol. The strength of sunlight to obtain the right levels decreases between October and March and northern countries. Any states above San Francisco are in this category. Thus, the liver uses its stores to get us through the winter. Sunscreen and clothing block vitamin D. Fair skin people only need 30 minutes of midday sun to achieve the correct dosage. Darker skin needs 3 hours because melanin in the skin protects against UV rays and it needs longer time to penetrate. Which is also why Africans and African Americans commonly have a deficiency. But Northerners, due to lack of sunshine have more of a deficiency too. Infants who are only breastfed can be deficient because breast milk doesn’t contain significant levels of vitamin D. Infant formula is fortified with vitamin D.
Other interesting facts: Vitamin D may prevent 50 % of prostate and breast cancers. Research finds that cancer patients who have their surgery/treatment in the summer get more vitamin D, therefore have a better chance of surviving the disease than those who have their treatment in the winter when they are exposed to less sunlight. Lack of vitamin D also correlates with cancer, diabetic and obese patients.
RDA: Recommendations vary depending on age, special needs, estrogen levels and intake of approximately 2000 mg/day is safe and generally healthy.
Roles in the body: Calcium is essential for growth, maintenance and reproduction. Functions include compostion of teeth and bones, blood coagulation, transmission of nerve impulses, muscle contraction and relaxation, normal heartbeat, stimulation of hormone secretion, activation of enzyme reactions and a number of other functions that require small amounts of Calcium.
Deficiency symptoms: In the Adult: osteoporosis (bone loss leading to bone weakness and fractures), oral health problems related to bone loss. Hypertension and other disorders are connected to calcium deficiency. In Children Rickets is the deficiency of calcium which causes bowed legs and beaded chest.
Excess or Toxicity: Limited periods of high calcium intake are relatively harmless. Calcification of soft tissues including kidney stones may occur. The body compensates to high intake by decreasing the absorption from the small intestine.
Food Sources: Dairy products: milk, cheese, buttermilk. Green leafy vegetables such as broccoli, collards, kale, mustard greens, turnip greens and bok choy are good sources of calcium. Other good non-dairy sources of calcium include fish packaged with their bones, almonds, brazil nuts and dried beans. Calcium is also fortified in orange juice.
Other: Vitamin D and Calcium work in tandem. Calcium is the most plentiful nutrient in the human body, accounting for 1.5-2% of total body weight.
Magnesium is an essential mineral for the human body. It is a
constituent of bones and teeth, it is an element of cellular metabolism, it
relaxes nerve impulses and muscle contractions, and it makes up part of red
blood cells. Deficiency results in muscle spasms, rapid heart rate,
confusion, hallucinations, disorientation, lack of appetite, listlessness,
nausea, and vomiting. Deficiency is often observed in alcoholics, those
with severe kidney disease, those with acute diarrhea, and in kwashiorkor.
The recommended dietary allowance for magnesium is 300-350 mg per day. It
is relatively widespread and found in a variety of foods. Rich sources are
coffee, cocoa powder, sesame seeds, soybean flour, wheat bran, wheat germ,
green-leafy vegetables, whole grains (oats, barley, wheat, and buckwheat),
legumes, and nuts. Magnesium is absorbed through the small intestine and
can be affected by high intake of calcium, phosphate, oxalic acid, and
poorly digested fats. Absorption is increased by protein, lactose, vitamin
D, growth hormone, and antibiotics.
A) Other Names: Zinc picolinate, Zincum and Zinc gluconate.
B) RDA: 15 mg per day.
C) Roles in body: Assists in wound healing, blood formation, growth and maintenance of tissues.
D) Deficiency symptoms: Hair loss, skin lesions, diarrhea, wasting of body tissues, death. Brain development is stunted by zinc insufficiency in utero and in youth.
E) Toxicity symptoms: Suppresses copper and iron absorption, stomach lining damage.
F) Food sources: Oysters, beef, pork, poultry, beans, nuts, whole grains, pumpkin seeds.
A. Names of nutrient: Selenium
B. Recommended daily allowance
· 55 micrograms per day for an adult over 19 years old
C. Roles in the body:
· Aid thyroid hormone metabolism
· It is a co-factor for the enzyme glutathione peroxidase, which metabolizes peroxides into less toxic alcohol derivatives and water
· Important for protecting heart cells and other cells against oxidative damage
· They are incorporated into proteins to make selenoproteins which are important antioxidant proteins which help prevent damage from free radicals
D. Deficiency Symptoms
· Selenium deficiency is rare in the US
· Diseases associated with selenium deficiencies include:
· Keshan disease, which occurs in selenium deficient children and results in an enlarged heart and poor heart function
· Kashin-Beck disease, which results in osteoarthropathy, disease of the bones and joints
· Myxedematous Endemic Cretinism, which results in mental retardation
· There is evidence that a selenium deficiency doesn’t cause illness by itself but can make the body more susceptible to illnesses caused by other nutritional, biochemical or infectious stresses
E. Excess or toxicity symptoms
· Upper level of usage for selenium is 400 micrograms per day for adults 19 years old, or older
· Toxicity symptoms can occur from daily intakes of 1-3 mg of selenium if taken for many months
· Signs of toxicity include hair loss, garlicky breath, nausea, diarrhea, fatigue and changes in finger and toenails
· Toxicity can also cause rashes and cirrhosis of the liver
F. Food sources
G. Other facts of interest
· Selenium is found in the soil, so the content in plants (our major dietary source) and animals foods are dependent on the quantity of selenium in the soil where the plants were grown or where the animals were raised
· People living in northern Nebraska and the Dakotas have the highest selenium intakes in the United State because of the very high levels of selenium in the soils there
· The US system of food distribution helps prevent selenium deficiency of people who live in geographic areas with low selenium, because they have access to food that was grown in regions where there was high levels of selenium in the soil
· Adults --- 150mcg.
· Children --- 70 to 90 mcg.
· Iodine is essential in maintaining the function of the thyroid and parathyroid glands in the human body.
· It is also essential to the production of thyroxine and for the prevention of goiter.
· Iodine improves mental alacrity and promotes healthy hair, nails, skin, and teeth.
· Iodine also promotes general growth and development within the body as well as aiding in metabolism. Iodine, because of it's role in the metabolism also helps to burn off excess fat.
Symptoms of iodine deficiency may include: acne, depression, frustration, goiter, hormonal imbalance, hyper and hypothyroidism, lethargy, miscarriages, scaly or dry skin, sterility or infertility. Iodine deficiency during pregnancy and early infancy can result in cretinism (irreversible mental retardation and severe motor impairments).
Seafood, saltwater fish, sea vegetables such as kelp, dulse, nori, hiziki, and wakame. It may also be found in asparagus, garlic, lima beans, mushrooms, sea salt (which provides nature's own balance of minerals), sesame seeds, soybeans, spinach, summer squash, Swiss chard, and turnip greens. Vegetable content is dependent upon the soil content of Iodinee.
· Combining iodine with such anti-thyroid drugs as methimazole and propylthiouracil may lessen the effect of these medications.
· Don't take iodine at the same time as the anti-manic agent lithium; adverse interactions may occur.
A. Nutrient name: Potassium.
B. RDA: There are no dietary intake standards.
C. Rolls in the body:
1. Potassium is needed to maintain the proper acid-base balance in the body.
2. It helps maintain an appropriate amount of h20 in your blood and body tissue.
3. It is needed for your muscle and nerve activity.
D. Deficiency symptoms:
1. Irritability, mental confusion.
2. Irregular heart beat.
E. Excess or toxicity symptoms:
1. Irregular heart beat, heart attack.
F. Food sources:
1. Plant food: potatoes, squash, lima beans, tomatoes, plantains, bananas, oranges and avocado.
3. Milk and milk products.
Name of Nutrient: CoenzymeQ10 also known as ubiquinone, or ubidecarenone
RDA: The recommended daily allowance is between 120 to 360 mg. for supplements. The body produces it naturally.
Roles in the Body: Coenzyme Q is naturally made in the body from vitamins B2, B3, B6, folic acid, and if you are taking adequate B-complex supplements. A coenzyme is a substance needed for the proper functioning of an enzyme, a protein that speeds up the rate at which chemical reactions take place in the body. The Q and the 10 in coenzyme Q10 refer to parts of the compound’s chemical structure. Coenzyme Q10 is used by cells to produce energy needed for cell growth and maintenance. It is also used by the body as an antioxidant. An antioxidant is a substance that protects cells from chemicals called free radicals. Free radicals are highly reactive chemicals that can damage important parts of cells, by destroying the DNA.
Deficiency Symptoms: Patients with genetic Coenzyme Q10 deficiency may suffer dysfunctions in brain, nerve and muscle, often including extreme fatigue and seizures. Coenzyme Q10 deficiency is one of the mitochondrial diseases caused by mutations in non-mitochondrial DNA, that is DNA in the cell nucleus.
Excess or Toxicity: None
Food Sources: Dark green, leafy vegetables rich in B vitamins and also as a supplement pill form.
Other Facts: Helps athletes perform better, Stabilize blood sugar levels in diabetes, helps with heart disease, cancer, allergies, chronic fatigue, AIDS, weight gain, and making the body run smoothly. Similar to vitamin K.
Names of this Nutrient: CoEnzyme Q (Ubiguinone)
In both athletes and sedentary people, supplementation with approximately 100 milligrams a day of CoQ has shown variable effects on aerobic performance.
In the mitochondra of muscle cells, CoQ actively helps transfer electrons in the electron transport chain. CoQ may also function as an antioxidant and spare vitamin E
Early studies that showed a positive effect of supplementation had poor study design (no control group). Studies using control groups show no improvement in exercise performance or reduction in oxidative stress induced by exercise.
Organic compound often B vitamin derivative that combines with an inactive enzyme to form a active enzyme.
The universal energy currency ATP usually powers energy-consuming processes and kick-starts many energy-releasing processes. Production of ATP is the fundamental goal of metabolism’s energy producing pathways. Similar to the saying “All roads lead to Rome,” you could say that, with few exceptions, energy producing pathways lead to ATP. CoQ is vital to the production of ATP (universal energy carrier) in the electron transport chains.
The more energy you burn, the more coenzyme Q-10 your body needs from your diet. In addition to being an important antioxidant, it is also critical to maintaining a healthy cardiac system, supporting healthy gums, and is an integral part of your immune system. Some studies indicate that it may assist in helping you control your weight. Although our bodies naturally produce coenzyme Q-10, as we age we need to obtain more and more of our coenzyme Q-10 from our diets. In order to ensure that you have sufficient coenzyme Q-10 in your daily diet, include Co-Q-10 Plus as part of your regular nutritional supplementation routine.
Coenzyme Q-10 is an integral part of the immune cycle. When body levels of it are raised, the immune system can receive more help from antibiotic and anti-viral drugs. However, antibiotics do not help to rebuild the immune system. On the other hand, Co-Q-10 can naturally stimulate the immune system and result in a wider range of beneficial and protective effects. Tissues that need the largest amounts of Coenzyme Q-10 are those that require the most energy, such as the heart. Our internal ability to produce Co-Q-10 declines with age, and as we get older we must rely more on Co-Q-10 from our diets.
in the Culinary Arts program are required to maintain a minimum grade
point average of 2.0 in order to remain in the program.
If G.P.A. falls below 2.0 for 2 consecutive quarters, the student
will not be readmitted to the program.
The same G.P.A. (2.0) is necessary in order to graduate and
receive a certificate or A.A.S. degree.
In addition, a student receiving a grade below 1.8 (74%) in a
required course will repeat that class until a grade of 1.8 is attained
before continuing in the Culinary Arts program.
Culinary Arts is a demanding, competitive field and we know that
if you do not maintain this academic standard, you are not acquiring the
skills necessary to be successful.
Grades are assigned according to the following table.